Don't Write For Loops

Nov 06, 2015

By Jamison Dance

Behold, a for loop!

var output = []
for (let i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {
  let changedData = changeData(array[i])
  output[i] = changedData

If you squint your eyes and look at the shape of this code, it looks like . . . a for loop. There is so much boilerplate that the meaning of the code is hidden behind the noise of looping, tracking indicies and pulling items out of an array.

We can clean it up a little, but the for loop book-keeping still takes up more space than operating on the data.

var output = []
for (let i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {

Three of the four lines in this function tell you nothing more than "HELLO CODE-READER WE ARE LOOPING OVER A THING". What we need is an abstraction for transforming each item in an array into a different item in a new array. If only such a thing existed OH WAIT IT DOES.

const output =

For loops are the worst. They make you write lots of code, but worse, they obscure the meaning of the code. There are higher-order functions for operating on arrays that communicate more clearly what you are actually doing to the array. They also free you from writing the boilerplate for loop code, which is surprisingly bug-prone.

Many for loops are just transforming an array in to another array, or transforming an array in to a value. JavaScript has a bunch of functions that help with both of these.

Transforming an array into another array

If you want to turn an array into another array, use map.

If you want to remove some items from an array, use filter. If I want to get only the minerals out of an array of objects, I could do it like so:

let objects = [
  {name: 'gold', type: 'mineral'},
  {name: 'potato', type: 'vegetable'},
  {name: 'silicon', type: 'mineral'},
  {name: 'jamison', type: 'animal'}
let minerals = objects.filter(o => o.type == 'mineral')
// [{name: 'gold', type: 'mineral'}, {name: 'silicon', type: 'mineral'}]

Turning an array in to a value

find and findIndex are siblings. Both take a callback, and return the first item in the array that the callback returns true for. find returns the item, and I bet you can guess what findIndex returns.

// find the spy
let suspects = [
  {name: 'Yolo Swaggins', isSpy: false},
  {name: 'Sneaky McSneakerson', isSpy: true},
  {name: 'Dastardly Diana', isSpy: true}
let spy = suspects.find(s => s.isSpy) // {name: 'Sneaky McSneakerson', isSpy: true},
console.log('ahah! we have found the spy,',, 'and surely now we are safe!')

every and some are also siblings. They turn an array in to a boolean. every returns true if every item in the array makes your callback return true, and some returns true if any item in your array makes your callback return true.

Let's use some to tell if Sara likes any hair metal bands.

let sarasFavoriteBands = [
  {name: 'Whitesnake', hairLength: 'long', makeup: true}
  {name: 'Mastodon', hairLength: 'long', makeup: false},
  {name: 'Bruce Springsteen', hairLength: 'short', makeup: false}
let isHairMetalFan = sarasFavoriteBands.some(b => b.hairLength == 'long' &&
// true, Sara likes hair metal

reduce takes in an array and "reduces" it down to a single value.

Liz is a bodybuilder. She wants to know how many total pounds she lifts in a workout. We can use reduce to do that.

let workout = [
  {exercise: 'back squat', weight: 150, sets: 5, reps: 10},
  {exercise: 'deadlift', weight: 245, sets: 5, reps: 5},
  {exercise: 'bench press', weight: 100, sets: 5, reps: 8},
  {exercise: 'push press', weight: 75, sets: 4, reps: 7}

var weight = workout.reduce(function(weightSoFar, exercise) {
  return weightSoFar + (exercise.weight * exercise.reps * exercise.sets)
}, 0)
console.log(weight) // 19725, holy crap that is a lot of weight, congrats Liz

reduce offers you a lot of control, but the control comes at the cost of readability. If you can accomplish your goal with another higher-order function, prefer it to reduce. However, sometimes reduce is just what you need.

A word about forEach

forEach is another array function. It doesn't transform the array or return anything. All it does is hand each value in the array to your callback function. Since it doesn't return data,forEach is almost always used for side-effecting things.

Sometimes a for loop really is what you want

Absolutes like NEVER WRITE FOR LOOPS make for good blog post titles but poor advice. Beware of dogma. There are always exceptions. Sometimes you really do want a for loop.

I still use for loops with async/await code because you can't use forEach.

Jamison Dance enjoys kittens, making computers smarter and the magic of children's laughter. He tweets at @jergason and GitHubs as jergason. He also podcasts on JavaScript Jabber and Soft Skills Engineering.